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Os benefícios das cláusulas escalonadas

Centro de Arbitragem e Mediação Internacional

Os benefícios das cláusulas escalonadas

É cada vez mais comum no meio empresarial o uso de métodos alternativos para por fim os conflitos. A tendência é que mais empresários escolham essa forma de encontrar uma resposta para os problemas, e assim, evitar os longos anos em um processo judicial. Por essa razão, as chamadas cláusulas escalonadas têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas. No meio jurídico elas são conhecidas como cláusulas med-arb – “med” de mediação e “arb” de arbitragem.
O verbo escalonar surge nesta situação justamente pelo fato de ter o sentido de organizar os meios de solução dos problemas entre as partes em uma sequência, sendo usada a mediação antes da arbitragem, como forma de evitar que o conflito precise ser resolvido pelo Judiciário. Vale destacar que nem a arbitragem, nem a mediação são cláusulas obrigatórias em um contrato, mas quando são eleitas devem ser cumpridas.
No caso da mediação, o não cumprimento gera uma perda racional, temporal e pecuniária, por razões que serão tratadas com mais profundidade a seguir. Por outro lado, a não realização da arbitragem pode ser causa de não resolução do mérito no âmbito judicial, conforme preconiza o artigo 485, inciso VII, do Código de Processo Civil (CPC).
A mediação e a arbitragem são meios de resolução de conflitos. A mediação é um meio autocompositivo, que é assim chamado porque as decisões são construídas pelas partes interessadas, neste caso em específico os celebrantes do contrato empresarial.
Já a arbitragem, é uma forma denominada heterocompositiva, ou seja, as partes escolhem um terceiro imparcial e este emite uma decisão a cerca do conflito ora existente.
Os advogados, neste cenário, prestam trabalho de grande valia na confecção de uma cláusula escalonada, já que seu papel consultivo é primordial e eficaz para que o negócio jurídico não contenha vícios ou não tende a erros.
De modo mais específico sobre os benefícios da mediação como cláusula escalonada, uma de suas vantagens é a confidencialidade, princípio que predomina tanto no âmbito das relações jurídicas entre pessoas físicas, como nas relações contratuais entre pessoas jurídicas ou sociedades empresárias. Este mesmo princípio também rege a arbitragem.
Outro aspecto, vantajoso, ao optar pela inclusão da cláusula escalonada, é a celeridade, que sem dúvidas é uma das características mais valiosas na resolução de conflitos no âmbito empresarial. Afinal, esperar uma decisão judicial para resolver problemas que possam impedir a normalidade de uma rotina negocial, o que pode muitas vezes, nessa longa espera comprometer o desempenho da atividade econômica e vir a trazer prejuízos pecuniários.
É por essa razão, que é cada vez mais comum no mundo dos negócios a inclusão de cláusulas escalonadas nos contratos empresariais, e a utilização da mediação e arbitragem como instrumentos para se chegar ao fim de um eventual conflito entre as partes. Como bem afirma o ditado; ‘tempo é dinheiro’, ouso acrescentar que a resolução de conflitos com diálogo é sinônimo de lucro.
A construção de uma solução de problemas por meio da mediação ou da arbitragem é atestada pelas próprias partes envolvidas, e que por sinal, não há ninguém mais adequado para saber o que é melhor para si e para seus negócios do que os envolvidos diretamente no assunto.
Por Nalian Cintra, presidente da Comissão Especial de Mediação, Conciliação e Arbitragem da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil – Seccional Mato Grosso (OAB/MT).
Fonte: Folha Max – 12 de Julho de 2017
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